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The following definitions are provided and to be used for educational and informational purposes only. We have made steps to provide citations for definitions that are verbatim and inspired by professional resources. Specifically, the JSO team thanks the Appraisal Institute. Many of our definitions are drawn from The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 6th edition. Please note that the reproduction of any cited definitions must honor the citing standards in place by the publishing entity. 


Absolute Net Lease: A lease in which the tenant pays all expenses including structural maintenance, building reserves, and management; often a long-term lease to a credit tenant. [1]

Adaptive Reuse and Adaptive Use: A new use of an existing building or site, which is usually mod- i ed to meet contemporary demand, e.g., the conversion of an obsolete manufacturing building into loft apartments. [1]

Ad Valorem and Ad Valorem Taxation: According to value. This term is often used when referring to the value placed on a site by an assessor. One of the most common examples of this is property tax, which is determined by an assessor according to the value of the sale.

After-tax Cashflow (ATCF): The portion of pre-tax cash ow that remains after all income tax liabilities have been deducted. [1]

After-tax Equity Yield Rate: The annualized rate of return on equity after payment of income taxes, including those that are or will be incurred upon disposition of the investment; the internal rate of return after taxes. [1]

Appraisal: (noun) the act or process of develop- ing an opinion of value; an opinion
of value. (adjective) of or pertaining to appraising and related functions such as appraisal practice or appraisal services. Comment: An appraisal must be numerically expressed as a specific amount, as a range of numbers, or as a relationship (e.g., not more than, not less than) to a previous value opinion or numerical benchmark (e.g., assessed value, collateral value). [2]


Appraiser: One who is expected to perform valuation services competently and in a manner that is independent, impartial, and objective. [2]

Appraisal Approach: A systematic process of developing an opinion of value. Depending on the nature of the property, purpose of the assignment, and scope of work, three approaches may be applied: sales comparison, income capitalization, and cost approaches or variations thereof. [1]

Assessed Value: The value of a property according to the tax rolls in ad valorem taxation; may be higher or lower than market value, or based on an assessment ratio that is a percentage of market value. [1]

Assessment Ratio: The relationship between assessed value and market value; also called assessment-sales price ratio. [1]

Axial Growth: Urban growth that takes the form of finger-like extensions radiating out along major transportation routes. [1]


Axial Theory: A theory of land use development that holds that urban development expands along transportation routes such as highways, railroads, and waterways that radiate out from the central business district. A beltway around the metropolitan area may link these arterial axes at or near the perimeter. Also called radial corridor theory. [1]


Below-the-line Expense: An expense that is recorded “below” the net operating in- come line in a reconstructed operating statement and therefore is not considered part of the total stabilized operating expenses for the property. Tenant improvements and leasing commissions are the most common line items recorded below the net operating income line for analytical purposes. [1]

Bottom Line: The final line in a company’s or business’s account/statement balance, which shows the net earnings. Contributing to the bottom line refers to increasing profit.

Business Equity: The interests, bene ts, and rights inherent in the ownership of a business enterprise or a part thereof in any form (including, but not necessarily limited to, capital stock, partnership interests, cooperatives, sole proprietorships, options, and war- rants). [2]

Business Start-up Costs: Pre-opening expenses necessary to turn completed real estate into an operating business; can include initial operating losses, operating capital, advertising and promotions, assembling a workforce, training, etc. [1]



  1. In real property investment, the money or the goods accepted by the seller in an investment sale.

  2. Money available for investment.

  3. One of the four agents of production in economic theory; physical capital required for real estate development, such as equipment (machinery and tools), buildings, and infrastructure (that is, capital goods) that can produce other goods. [1]

Capital Assets:

  1. For firms, assets (either tangible or intangible) that are long-term investments bought and sold as part of normal business or for investment purposes and that are generally purchased for the purpose of producing income, e.g., land, buildings, machinery, equipment.

  2. In accounting, all property held by an individual for personal or investment purposes, but excluding stock in trade, depreciable property, copyrights, or accounts receivable related to the individual’s trade or business.[1]

Capital Cost: One-time expenses that occur when completing a project. These expenses include purchase of land, property, equipment, and more.

Capital Expenditure: Investments of cash (or the creation of liability) to ac- quire or improve an asset, e.g., land, buildings, building additions, site improvements, machinery, equipment; as distinguished from cash outflows for expense items that are normally considered part of the current period’s operations. Also referred to as cap ex. [1]


Capital Expense: The expenses that a property owner occasionally incurs that are required to upgrade the property or make capital replacements; also called capital charge. [1]

Capitalization Rate: Capitalization is the conversion of income generated by a property into value for that property. The capitalization rate is a ratio of one year’s net operating income provided by an asset to the value of the asset; used to convert income into value in the application of the income capitalization approach. [1]

Commercial Property: Income-producing property such as of office buildings, retail buildings, hotels, banks, restaurants, service outlets, and owner-occupied properties that are capable of becoming income-producing should the owner so decide; usually zoned for business purposes. [1]

Commercial Real Estate (CRE): A broad classification of income-producing real estate, including of office buildings, shopping centers, and multifamily residential properties. [1]

Comparables: A shortened term for similar property sales, rentals, or operating expenses used for comparison in the valuation process. In best usage, the thing being compared should be specified, e.g., comparable sales, comparable properties, comparable rentals. [1]

Comparative Analysis: The process by which a value indication is derived in the sales comparison approach. Comparative analysis may employ quantitative or qualitative techniques, either separately or in combination. [1]

Concentric Zone Theory: A theory of urban growth, developed by Ernest W. Burgess in the 1920s, which holds that predominant land uses tend to expand out from a city’s central business district to form a series of concentric, circular zones. [1]

Cooperative ownership (Co-op): A form of property ownership in which each unit owner holds stock in a cooperative apartment building or housing corporation. Stockholders receive a proprietary lease on a specific apartment and are obligated to pay a monthly maintenance charge that represents the proportionate share of operating expenses and debt service on any underlying mortgage, which is paid by the corporation. This proportionate share is based on the proportion of the total stock owned. [1]

Cost Approach: A set of procedures through which a value indication is derived for the fee simple estate by estimating the current cost to construct a reproduction of (or replacement for) the existing structure, including an entrepreneurial incentive or profit; deducting depreciation from the total cost; and adding the estimated land value. Adjustments may then be made to the indicated value of the fee simple estate in the subject property to reflect the value of the property interest being appraised. [1]




Dominant Estate: A property that is served or benefitted by an easement. The opposite of the servient estate, which granted the easement.  Also known as the dominant tenement and the servient tenement, respectively.

Drive-Time Studies: Drive-time studies provide key information regarding the population and demographics within certain driving distances from a site. For example, they can provide information regarding how many people live within a 5, 10, and 30-minute drive from the site and demographics pertaining to that population. These studies also analyze competing businesses in the area within driving distance, when applicable. This information aids in creating a thorough and accurate appraisal of the site in question.


Easement: The right to use another’s land for a stated purpose.

E-commerce: The use of computers and electronic communications in business transactions. May include the use of electronic money exchange, Internet advertising, Web sites, online databases, computer networks, and point-of-sale (POS) computer systems. [1]

Economic Base Analysis: A survey of the industries and businesses that generate employment and income in a community as well as a study of functions of employment such as the rate of population growth and levels of income. Economic base analysis is used to forecast the level and composition of future economic activity. Specifically, the relation- ship between basic employment (which brings income into a community) and nonbasic employment (which provides services for workers in the basic employment sector) is studied to predict population, income, or other variables that affect real property values or land use. [1]

Economic Characteristics:

  1. Characteristics that affect a property’s income.

  2. An element of comparison in the sales comparison approach. Comparable sales can be adjusted for differences in property attributes that affect income, such as operating expenses, quality of management, tenant mix, rent con- cessions, lease terms, lease expiration dates, renewal options, and lease options such as recovery clauses. [1]

Equalization Rate or Equalization Ratio: Refers to the process wherein a governmental body/municipality attempts to ensure that all property is assessed at the same assessment rate/ratio or at those required by law. The rate/ratio is generally the property’s assessed value (assigned by local assessor) divided by its market value (assigned by state or other entity/professional), resulting in a percentage. The results in a rate/ratio that is often published on a county website.


Excess Land: Land that is not needed to serve or support the existing use. The highest and best use of the excess land may or may not be the same as the highest and best use of the improved parcel. Excess land has the potential to be sold separately and is valued separately.

External Obsolescence: A type of depreciation; a diminution in value caused by negative external influences and generally incurable on the part of the owner, landlord, or tenant. The external influence may be either temporary or permanent.




Fair Market Value:

  1. In nontechnical usage, a term that is equivalent to the contemporary usage of market value.

  2. As used in condemnation, litigation, in- come tax, and property tax situations, a term that is similar in concept to mar- ket value but may be de ned explicitly by the relevant agency. For example, one definition of fair market value provided by the Internal Revenue Service for certain purposes is as follows: The price at which the property would change hands between a willing buyer and a willing seller, neither being under any compulsion to buy or to sell and both having reasonable knowledge of relevant facts. The fair market value of a particular item of property includible in the decedent’s gross estate is not to be determined by a forced sale price. Nor is the fair market value of an item of property to be determined by the sale price of the item in a market other than that in which such item is most commonly sold to the public, taking into account the location of the item wherever appropriate.

  3. or, Fair Value: The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an  transaction between market participants at a specific date. [1] [3]

Fee Simple Interest or Fee Simple Estate: The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal states, “Absolute ownership unencumbered by any other interest or estate, subject only to the limitations imposed by the governmental powers of taxation, eminent domain, police power, and escheat.” [1]

The term is commonly used to reference the fee simple owner and their full rights legal rights to possess, use, and transfer the land.


Going Concern Value: The total value of a healthy business; the value of the property plus the goods and assets associated with that business. The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal adds: "A going concern is a business having the ability to continue functioning as a business entity in the future. In accounting, a business is considered to be a going concern if it is likely to continue functioning 12 months into the future." [1]

Gross Lease: a lease wherein the landlord receives stipulated rent and is responsible for paying all the property’s operating expenses and fixed expenses.


Highest and Best Use: The reasonably probable use of property that results in the highest value. The four criteria that the highest and best use must meet are legal permissibility, physical possibility, financial feasibility, and maximum productivity. [1]

Homogeneous: Being similar in nature to other parts or elements; e.g., a market area or neighborhood where the property types and uses are similar and the inhabitants have compatible cultural, social, and economic interests. [1]


Income Approach or Income Capitalization Approach: The income approach is used to value properties that generate income, and consider the capitalization rate of the property. According to the Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, “Specific appraisal techniques applied to develop a value indication for a property based on its earning capability and calculated by the capitalization of property income.” [1]

A simple example to demonstrate income approach theory is an appraiser using market sales of comparable sites (comparables) for choosing a capitalization rate. When valuing a twelve-unit office building in a county A, the appraiser studies the recent sale prices of similar properties in county A. After calculating the capitalization rate, the appraiser can divide the property’s net operating income (NOI) by that rate. If this property has an NOI of $3 million and a chosen capitalization rate of 8% is worth $37.5 million.

Investment Value:

1. The value of a property to a particular investor or class of investors based on the investor’s specific requirements. Investment value may be different from market value because it depends on a set of investment criteria that are not necessarily typical of the market.

2. The value of an asset to the owner or a prospective owner for individual investment or operational objectives. (IVS)  [1 - P.121]


Joint Tenancy: Shared ownership by two or more persons. Both have the right of survivorship.


Joint Venture. An enterprise of two or more entities created for the purpose of undertaking a specific project. The entities involved keep their distinguishing characteristics and individual identities. 


Key Money:  Payment in addition to the sale price or rent made by an incoming buyer or tenant to the property owner or landlord to secure a purchase or lease. 


Leased Fee Interest: The ownership interest held by the lessor or landlord, which includes the right to receive the contract rent specified in the lease plus the reversionary right when the lease expires. [1]

Leasehold Interest: The right held by the lessee to use and occupy real estate for a stated term and under the conditions specified in the lease. [1]

Local Economic Analysis: Study of the fundamental determinants of the demand for and supply of all real estate in the market. The analysis considers the factors basic to the demand for all types of real estate in a local economy—i.e., population, households, employment, and income. Past trends and forecasts of these basic demand determinants are made for a defined geographic area. The supply-side factors to be considered include the amount of land available for specific land uses, construction costs, and the local infrastructure. Economic base analysis and input-out- put analysis are two techniques used to describe the local economy. [1]

Locational Obsolescence: A loss in value due to proximity to something that changes value, such as a landfill or traffic. Locational obsolescence is usually incurable. See also external obsolescence. [1]

Location Analysis: In market analysis for real estate, a study of the placement of spatial attributes and how these attributes relate to specific functions. Location Quotient (LQ): A ratio of the percentage of local employment in a given industry to the percentage of region, state, or national employment in the same industry. For a given industry, the location quotient could be calculated as follows:


LQ = e/E, where  


e = Local Employment in Given Industry/Local Employment in All Industries  

E = National Employment in Given Industry/National Employment in All Industries [1]


Market Value: According to the Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, market value refers to "The most probable price that the specified property interest should sell for in a competitive market after a reasonable exposure time, as of a specified date, in cash, or in terms equivalent to cash, under all conditions requisite to a fair sale, with the buyer and the seller each acting prudently, knowledgeably, for self interest and assuming that neither is under duress." [1]

Market Value of the Going Concern: The market value of an established and operating business including the real property, personal property, financial assets, and the intangible assets of the business.  [1 - P.143]

Market Value of the Total Assets of the Business (MVTAB):  The market value of all of the tangible and intangible assets of a business as if sold in aggregate as a going concern. [1 - P.143]


Net Lease: A lease wherein the tenant pays both the base rent and all of the other property expenses (real estate taxes, common area maintenance, utilities, insurance, etc.)

Net Operating Income (NOI): The actual or anticipated net income that remains after all operating expenses are deducted from effective gross income but before mortgage debt service and book depreciation are deducted. [1]


Obsolescence (Cost Approach):  One cause of depreciation; an impairment of desirability and usefulness caused by new inventions, changes in design, improved processes for production, or external factors that make a property less desirable and valuable for a continued use; may be either functional or external.


Comments:  obsolescence may include curable or non-curable functional obsolescence.  External obsolescence on the other hand tends not to be curable.  For example a new landfill site being open and close to subdivision.  It could be expected that there is an immediate impact on values within the subdivision based on proximity of the landfill.  This would be difficult to cure.  


Occupancy Rate

1. The relationship or ratio between the potential income from the currently rented units in a property and the income that would be received if all the units were occupied.


2. The ratio of occupied space to total rentable space in a building.


Operating Expense Ratio (OER):  The ratio of total operating expenses to effective gross income.


Operating expense:  The periodic expenditures necessary to maintain the real estate and continue production of the effective gross income, assuming prudent and competent management.  


Opportunity Cost: The cost of options foregone or opportunities not chosen.  


Parcel Identification Number (PIN). 

A numeric or alphanumeric label that uniquely identifies a parcel. Government property assessors use various systems, many with common features including geocoding. The government survey system is often used as a basis for parcel identification.


Parking Ratio. 

A ratio of parking area or parking spaces to an economic or physical unit of comparison. Minimum required parking ratios for various land uses are often stated in zoning ordinances.



Partial Interest:  Divided or undivided rights in real estate that represent less than the whole, i.e., a fractional interest such as a tenancy in common, easement, or life interest.  


Comments:  Partial interests is where more than one person is the owner to a property.  Fractional ownership without physical division. They re co-owners share the property rights owned.  These partial interests are a salable asset, but for now the the market for their conveyance is a poor.  The IRS based on past case law has recognized that these interests sell below market value since there is a lack of control, marketability, etc.


Partial Interest Discount:  A discount to the value of a full ownership interest in property often applicable to ownership of a partial interest resulting from the diminished marketability of a less than full interest, lack of control, or both. Often applicable in estate tax situations, in the dissolution of a limited partnership, and in the valuation of companies and businesses.



Partial Taking: The taking of part of a property for public use under the power of eminent domain; requires the payment of compensation.


Per Capita Income:  The total personal income of area residents divided by the number of residents.


Percentage Lease:  A lease in which the rent or some portion of the rent represents a specified percentage of the volume of business, productivity, or use achieved by the tenant.


Percentage Rent: Rental income received in accordance with the terms of a percentage lease; typically derived from retail store and restaurant tenants and based on a certain percentage of their gross sales.


Qualitative Adjustment: An indication that one property is superior, inferior, or the same as another property.


Note according to the 6th Edition of the Dictionary of Real estate Appraisal, that the common usage of the term is a misnomer in that an adjustment to the sale price of a comparable property is not made. Rather, the indication of a property’s superiority or inferiority to another is used in relativecomparison analysis, bracketing, and other forms of qualitative analysis.


Quantitative adjustment: A numerical (dollar or percentage) adjustment to the indicated value of a comparable property to account for the effect of a difference between two properties on value.


Quantity Survey Method:  A cost-estimating method in which the quantity and quality of all materials used and all categories of labor required are estimated and unit cost figures are applied to arrive at a total cost estimate for labor and materials.



Quitclaim Deed:  A form of conveyance in which any interest the grantor possesses in the property described in the deed is conveyed to the grantee without warranty of title.



Rack Rate:  In the lodging industry, an undiscounted room rate generally given to anyone who does not qualify or ask for a special discounted rate.


Range of Value: In final reconciliation, the range in which the final market value opinion of a property may fall; usually stated as the interval between a high and low value limit.


Rate: The ratio of one quantity to another; e.g., the ratio of net operating income to sale price or value is the overall capitalization rate; the reciprocal of a factor.


Rate of Return: The ratio of income or yield to the original investment, can be annual (e.g., the ratio of the current annual net income generated from theoperation of an enterprise to the capital investment) or for some other defined period (e.g., the yield to maturity of the investment).


Rate Surcharge: The difference between the capitalization rate and the discount rate; the increment added to a basic return on capital to provide for recapture or to compensate for the risk of future loss in capital value.


Real Estate Investment Trust (REIT): Is a corporation or trust that combines the capital of many investors to acquire or provide financing for all forms of real property. A REIT serves much like a mutual fund for real property. Its shares are freely traded, often on a major stock exchange.  To qualify for the favorable taxtreatment currently accorded such trusts, 90% of the taxable income of a REIT must be distributed among its shareholders, who must number at least 100investors; no fewer than five investors can own more than 50% of the value of the REIT during the last half of each taxable year. The US Securities andExchange Commission (SEC) stipulates that REITs with over 300 investors have to make their financial statements public.


Note that in the majority of cases the REIT is purchasing real estate not based on the physical property but on the income stream that this is currently or potentially in the future can property produce.  Given the very tight market for Class A properties or good Class B properties, transaction prices tend to be higher


Real Property:

  • An interest or interests in real estate.

  • The interests, benefits, and rights inherent in the ownership of real estate. Comment: In some jurisdictions, the terms real estate and real property have the same legal meaning. The separate definitions recognize the traditional distinction between the two concepts in appraisal theory. (USPAP, 2016-2017 ed.)

  • All rights, interests, and benefits related to the ownership of real estate. (IVS)


 Real Rate of Return: The return on an investment adjusted for inflation.


Reimbursements: Operating expenses that are paid by the tenant, often on the basis of the proportion of space the tenant occupies compared to the total.

Ring Studies: The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal defines these studies as: “A trade area analysis tool that divides the area surrounding the subject property into concentric zones, or rings. Ring studies analyze demographic and competitive characteristics. They do not recognize geographic barriers or traffic routes within the trade area.”[1] See also Concentric Zone Theory


Scope of Analysis or Scope of Work: The type and extent of research and analyses in an appraisal or appraisal review assignment. [2]

Stock Keeping Units (SKU): SKUs are the total number of individual product lines that are in a store for sales at any given time.

Structural Risk: These can be viewed as risks that affect an entire industry. Economic trends are an example of a structural risk that will affect business/company within a given industry.

Surplus land:  Land that is not currently needed to support the existing use but cannot be separated from the property and sold off for another use. Surplus land does not have an independent highest and best use and may or may not contribute value to the improved parcel.


Tax Parcel: A variation of the lot and block system of land description used by assessors; tax parcels are numbered and referenced to coded map books by section, block, and lot.


Tax Rate:  The factor used to calculate the total tax for a property, typically expressed in dollars per $100 or $1,000 (mills) of assessed value. The tax rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of the taxes for a community by the total assessed value of all properties in the community.


Tax Stop:  A clause in a lease that limits the landlord’s tax obligation because the lessee assumes any taxes above an established level. 


Tenant:  One who holds or possesses real estate by any kind of right or title; commonly a person who occupies and uses the property of another under a lease.


Tenant Contributions: All costs that are the responsibility of the tenant(s), over and above the contract rent specified in the lease.


Total Operating Expenses: The sum of all fixed and variable operating expenses and the replacement allowance cited in the appraiser’s operating expense estimate.



Undevelopable Land: Land area that cannot be used practicably for the development of structures and other improvements because of limitations imposed by:

  • natural conditions, such as steep slopes, severe topography, or bod- ies of water, or

  • man-made conditions, such as existing development which isolates

  • a portion of the site and prevents its further development, setbacks or development restrictions that prohibit development of a given area of a lot by law or private agreement, or existence or absence of easements or access rights that prevent development of a given area. [1]

Unimproved Land: Vacant land or land that lacks the essential, appurtenant improvements required to make it useful. Also called raw land. [1]


Units of Comparison: The components into which a property may be divided for purposes of comparison, e.g., price per square foot, front foot, cubic foot, room, bed, seat, apartment unit. [1]

Usable Area:

  1. For office buildings, the actual occupiable area of a floor or an of office space; computed by measuring from the finished surface of the of office side of corridor and other permanent walls, to the center of partitions that separate the of office from adjoining usable areas, and to the inside finished surface of the dominant portion of the permanent outer building walls. Sometimes called net building area or net floor area. Also called floor area.

  2. The area that is actually used by the tenants measured from the inside of the exterior walls to the inside of walls separating the space from hallways and common areas. [1]

Use Value: The value of a property assuming a specific use, which may or may not be the property’s highest and best use on the effective date of the appraisal. Use value may or may not be equal to market value but is different conceptually. Also called value in use[1]

Use Value Assessment: An assessment based on the value of property as it
is currently used, not on its market value considering its highest and best use. This sort of assessed value is sometimes used where legislation has been enacted to preserve farmland, timberland, or other open space land on urban fringes. 


Valuation Process: A systematic set of procedures an appraiser follows to provide answers to a client’s questions about real property value. At a glance, the steps include:


1) Identification of problem and/or need

  • Identify client and intended users

  • Identify the intended use

  • Identify the purpose of the assignment (type and definition of value)

  • Identify the effective date of the opinion

  • Identify the relevant characteristics of the property

  • Assignment conditions

2) Scope of Work Determination

3) Data Collection and Property Description

  • Market Area Data - General characteristics of region, city, and neighborhood

  • Subject Property Data - Subject characteristics of land use and improvements, personal property, business assets, etc.

  • Comparable Property Data - Sales, listings, offerings, vacancies, cost and depreciation, income and expenses, capitalization rates, etc.

4) Data Analysis

  • Market Analysis - Demand studies Supply studies Marketability studies

  • Highest and Best Use Analysis - Land as though vacant Ideal improvement Property as improved

5) Land Value Opinion

6) Application of the Approaches to Value

  • Sales Comparison Approach

  • Income Capitalization Approach

  • Cost Approach

7) Reconciliation of Value Indications and Final Opinion of Value

8) Report of Defined Value [1]

Visibility Analysis: A process examining property elements that provide potential site users with information about the activities and conditions available on the site and affect their decision to continue to use it. Such a study concentrates specifically on the visibility of all the site’s principal and support- ing uses, specific activities and points that require more visibility, signs and information about such activities, and access conditions and internal site connections. [1]






Yield Rate (Y): A rate of return on capital, usually expressed as a compound annual percentage rate. A yield rate considers all expected property benefits, including the proceeds from sale at the termination of the investment. [1]

Yield to Maturity: In nance, the total rate of return that would be realized on an investment such as a bond if purchased at the current market price, held as an investment, and redeemed for the principal amount at maturity. [1]


Z Lot: A lot and tract design such that portions of adjacent Z-shaped lots
in fee are burdened with exclusive easements serving the next lot, for the purpose of maximizing the density of detached units while retaining yard spaces. 

Zoning: Public regulation of the use of private land through application of police power; accomplished by establishing districts or areas with uniform requirements relating to lot coverage, setbacks, type of improvement, permitted activities, signage, structure height, minimum lot area, density, landscaping, and other aspects of land use and development. Zoning regulations are established by enactment of a local (city, town, or county) zoning ordinance. [1]


[1] Appraisal Institute, The Dictionary of Real Estate Appraisal, 6th ed. (Chicago: Appraisal Institute, 2015)

[2] USPAP, 2016-2017 ed.

[3] IRS Regulation §20.2031-1

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